At present, it is highly important to develop a simple and compatible nano delivery system for pesticides for foliar application, which can improve their insecticidal efficacy and resistance to adverse climates while reducing the environmental risks. Polyethylene glycol and 4,4-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate are used as hydrophilic soft and hydrophobic hard segments, respectively, for polymer self-assembly and polyurethane gelation in a nanoreactor. The nanocarrier synthesis and the pesticide loading are realized by a one-step integration procedure and suited well for hydrophobic active compounds. Modifying the molecular structure of the soft segment can adjust the flexibility of the nanocarriers and result in viscosity and deformation characteristics. After foliar spray application, the foliar flattening state of the nanogels increases the foliar protection area by 2.21 times and improves both pesticide exposure area and target contact efficiency. Concurrently, the flexibility and viscosity of the nanogels increase the washing resistance and the retention rate of the pesticide by approximately 80 times under continuous washing. The encapsulation of the nanogels reduces the foliar ultraviolet (UV) degradation and aquatic pesticide exposure, which increase the security of λ-cyhalothrine by 9.33 times. Moreover, the degradability of nanogels is beneficial for pesticide exposure and reducing pollution. This system has simple preparation, good properties, and environmental friendliness, making the nanocarriers promising for delivering pesticides.