Oil supply disruptions in the 1970s combined with advances in computers spurred a substantial increase in mathematical modeling of fossil fuel exploration and utilization. One aspect of this work was the broad adoption of various distributed reactivity models for coal and kerogen pyrolysis, which was accomplished in various ways, including activation energy distribution and lattice models. Many of the important advances were published in Energy & Fuels, whose establishment was prompted by this large increase in energy-related research. This paper reviews those advances, starting with some seminal papers in the 1970s followed by the maturation of those approaches in the 1980s and early 1990s, with an emphasis on highly cited papers published in the first 15 years of Energy & Fuels. These methods and kinetic parameters therefrom continue to be used today. However, many current researchers may not appreciate the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches and merely follow the practices of their specialty group without considering potentially better approaches.
With the sun setting across the Californian sky, Elon Musk took to the stage to announce the Tesla Model S Plaid at an event at Tesla’s Fremont factory.
“We’ve got to show that an electric car is the best car – hands down,” said Musk, introducing the new model in his personable and relaxed style, and justifying why Tesla has such a focus on speed.
And speed is something that the Tesla Model S Plaid doesn’t lack: it’s will do 0-60mph in 1.99 seconds, making it the fastest production car ever.
Recent government streamlining could help bring the first major innovations to air travel in decades.
Commercial airliners capable of traveling faster than the speed of sound will return to America’s skies by 2029, United Airlines announced June 3 after the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) reduced regulations that had stymied progress in the sector. That’s right: Flying could and indeed should actually start getting faster again — if the FAA pursues further deregulation. And the agency has no compelling reason to keep standing in the way.
The major airline company announced it will purchase at least 15 and up to 50 supersonic airliners from the American company Boom Supersonic. The aircraft are said to be capable of sustained flight at Mach 2, equivalent to over 1,400 miles per hour, while holding up to 88 passengers. The company estimates that the supersonic jets could cut commercial-flight times between New York and London from the current six and a half hours to just three and a half. The first flight could occur as soon as 2026. The company claims travelers will pay less for flights per mile than they currently do to ride on business-class subsonic aircraft.
The news follows a major deregulatory change by the FAA announced in November. The aviation authority streamlined the bureaucratic requirements to conduct supersonic flight-testing and cut back noise regulations. The agency expects to decide on further deregulation by 2025. Specifically, the agency is considering expanding the new easing of regulations beyond flight-testing to actual commercial flights. Hopefully, the FAA follows through on this opportunity to make aviation great again. Those interested in further innovation in air travel certainly hope the FAA follows through.
Airliners today actually travel slower than they did in the past due to more intricate scheduling, various regulations, and fuel-efficiency concerns. Inefficiency didn’t doom the Concorde supersonic airliners, as they were profitable relative to conventional subsonic jets of their day, especially toward the end of the aircraft’s operation. However, regulatory noise restrictions limited use of the aircraft almost exclusively to trans-Atlantic routes and made supersonic flights over land effectively illegal.
Supersonic aircraft generate sonic booms continually, so if one were to fly between New York City and Los Angeles, everyone on the ground under the flight path would hear a pain-inducing, roughly 110-decibel noise, equivalent to a nearby chainsaw. Technologies used in new supersonic aircraft could reduce the noise level to roughly that of a car door shutting a dozen paces away. However, despite such technological breakthroughs, every potential flight route announced by Boom Supersonic and United Airlines goes over the ocean and avoids airspace over land. It is clear that outdated government regulations are still suppressing the potential of these aircraft to make travel faster and more cost-effective.
The return of supersonic air travel is significant both because it represents a major advance for the aviation industry that still contends with burdensome overregulation, and because it is an example of how swiftly innovation can proceed when regulatory shackles are lifted. In this case, deregulation regarding flight-testing was enough to kick-start a supersonic breakthrough. But since 1970, the FAA has heavily regulated civilian supersonic aircraft, preventing them from traveling at speeds greater than Mach 1 over the United States because of noise concerns that are largely unwarranted thanks to new noise-reducing technologies. Until the regulatory requirements catch up to current technological realities, supersonic aircraft will remain relegated to flying only over oceans, greatly limiting their potential.
Government overregulation isn’t supersonic air travel’s only obstacle. Certain strands of the environmental movement have long opposed supersonic flight, alleging that supersonic aircraft will burn more fuel per passenger than subsonic planes and thus produce more pollution. Extreme environmentalists attacked the FAA’s new, more-reasonable standards governing supersonic-aircraft testing before they were even released last year.
“The pollution from existing planes is already a major threat to public health that the FAA is ignoring,” said Clare Lakewood, climate legal director at the Center for Biological Diversity. “The current reduction in air traffic [due to the COVID-19 pandemic], and the cleaner air we now breathe, should be reasons for the [government] to adopt measures to protect people and the climate from conventional aircraft, not excuses to pave the way for super-polluting supersonics.”
These concerns are misguided. United Airlines, which pledged to greatly reduce its greenhouse-gas emissions, says the supersonic aircraft will use sustainable aviation fuel and be a “net-zero carbon aircraft.”
Between facing overregulation from bureaucrats and opposition from segments of the environmental movement, supersonic air travel has struggled to gain traction over the past couple of decades. In fact, no commercial airline has operated supersonic aircraft since 2003 when the Concordes, operated by British Airways and Air France, retired.
The FAA’s flight-testing deregulation is a step in the right direction. And this wouldn’t be the first time airline deregulation triggered a renaissance in aviation.
Before 1985, the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Board allowed only one or two airlines to serve a given route, let them unilaterally set the price of tickets to actively ban price competition, and essentially operated a government-sponsored airline cartel. The result was that air travel was artificially inflated in price and thus accessible to far fewer Americans. The year before deregulation began, roughly 75 percent of Americans had never flown, compared with just 13 percent in 2020. The exclusive and expensive nature of air travel gave it a glamorous image in the public imagination. To this day the pre-deregulation era is often hailed as a “golden age of flying.” But the reality was far less alluring: smoke-filled cabins, long flight delays, extremely shaky liftoffs, and a much noisier in-flight experience.
United Airlines also played a unique role in the deregulation of the 1970s and 1980s. The airline’s attempts to add new routes had been repeatedly frustrated by the government. So the company fought back and successfully prevented the cronyist airline trade association from blocking deregulation efforts. Regulatory reform soon led to improved price competition and lower airfares. In 1979, the first year of deregulation, the average inflation-adjusted domestic fare was $616, or 1.2 percent of average household income that year. In 2016, the average fare had dropped to $344, merely 0.6 percent of average household income, or roughly half of the previous price.
That lower price tag is even more impressive when one considers that innovations have allowed air travel to become safer over that time period, with fewer fatal hull-loss accidents than in the past, despite far more flights taking place. Flights today are also more comfortable, with smoke-free air, Wi-Fi, and often multiple movie options. And flights today have the potential to be much faster as well. Whether most commercial flights ever become faster-than-sound will depend on further regulatory reform. Here’s hoping the government can get out of the way of the fast planes of the future.
- The $99.99 Logitech Mx Master 3 is a far superior mouse to the one Apple provides, with tons of features and the ability to customize functions.
- I found the best part of the Master 3 to be the new electromagnetic scroll wheel.
- During my tests, the Master 3 worked on every surface I could find, including wood and plastic.
I’m so delighted with the speed and incredibly slim design of Apple’s new iMac M1 that I rushed out to get the Logitech Mx Master 3 for Mac mouse in an attempt to find a pointing device that could keep up.
With all the design tweaks and upgrades inside the iMac, why is Apple still using the same old Magic Mouse? It’s okay for light pointing and clicking, but real keyboard warriors need more control and better ergonomics. The Master 3 is the Ginsu Knife of mice, with a beguiling number of buttons and features.
The first thing I noticed was how much more comfortable the Mx Master 3 was than the Magic Mouse. It’s got a nicely textured rubber-feeling coating that makes a welcome contrast to the hard plastic of Apple’s stock mouse.
The Master 3 has an ergonomic design, so it holds my wrist in a position that immediately relieved my developing carpal tunnel syndrome. Measuring 2 x 3.3 x 4.9 inches, the Master 3 is on the larger side, but the height gives my palm a place to rest. If you have small hands, you might want to consider a more petite model.
Looks-wise, the Master 3 is a bit of a toss-up. On one hand, it’s a cool-looking gadget with lots of sleek curves and delightfully industrial-looking buttons. That’s all great, but it does clash with Apple’s elegant and minimalist designs. I’m ok with the Master 3 not matching my iMac, considering all the features it offers.
The Master 3 is highly accurate for daily use. It tracks at up to 4,000 dots per inch (dpi), and Logitech says it works on any surface, including glass. During my tests, it worked on every surface I could find, including wood and plastic. Admittedly, it’s not as accurate on paper as some gaming mice, but that’s not the intended audience.
One handy feature is it can easily switch between connected Bluetooth devices, making it easy to use the mouse with my iPad M1 and my iMac without fussing with settings.
The side of the Master 3 contains two macro buttons, and a second scroll wheel. There’s also a gesture button that works like a function key on a keyboard, giving you four additional inputs when you hold down the gesture button and move the mouse.
I found the best part of the Master 3 to be the new electromagnetic scroll wheel. The wheel uses magnets instead of mechanical resistance and can even add simulated resistance at specified times, like when you’re scrolling through pages of documents. In practice, I found the new scroll wheel to give subtle and helpful feedback, and it was very pleasant to use.
Fun Scrolling With Magnets
A neat trick the magnetic wheel allows is dynamic scrolling. It will automatically adjust the resistance depending on how fast you roll the wheel. For example, when scrolling through long documents, I quickly spun the wheel, and the magnets let me whirl through pages. There’s also an option to change the resistance manually.
Two other buttons underneath the wheel are programmable. I mostly used them as forward and backwards buttons in Safari, and since I’m constantly clicking between websites, this feature was worth the price of the mouse alone.
“I found the best part of the Master 3 to be the new electromagnetic scroll wheel.”
But wait, there’s more! Right below where your thumb rests is a gesture button. You can press the button and slide to do things like launch apps through Logitech’s customization utility software. For example, you can hold down the button and move left and right to switch between open apps. It’s a lot of gestures to memorize, but if you’re a hardcore user, it might be well worth your time.
At $99.99, the Master 3 isn’t an impulse buy. But for those who like the ability to customize and want plenty of controls at their fingertips, Logitech has produced the best mouse I’ve found so far for the Mac.
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Fort Worth Opera presents two performances of Frida Kahlo and the Bravest Girl in the World, a mini-version of FWO’s family-friendly opera, performed in celebration of the DMA’s “Frida Kahlo: Five Works” exhibition.
Based upon the highly acclaimed book by award-winning English author and illustrator Laurence Anholt, the work follows the real-life story of Marianna Morillo Safa and her friendship with famed painter Frida Kahlo. The 20-minute performances will take place outdoors on the Dallas Museum of Art’s Eagle Family Plaza.
To view the exhibition before or after the performance, please reserve your timed tickets at https://www.etix.com/ticket/e/1014117/museum-admission-dallas-dallas-museum-of-art.
Aer Lingus has announced that a number of regional flights have been cancelled after operator Stobart Air ended its contract with the Irish airline.
The announcement affects several flights from Dublin and Belfast City airports to UK cities.
An Aer Lingus statement said: “Late on the evening of June 11, Stobart Air notified Aer Lingus that it was terminating its franchise agreement with Aer Lingus with immediate effect.
“As a result, all Aer Lingus regional flights operated by Stobart Air are cancelled.
“Stobart Air referred to the continuing impact of the pandemic which has resulted in almost no flying since March 2020.
“Stobart Air has ceased trading and is now in the process of appointing a liquidator.
“Aer Lingus apologises to customers for the inconvenience caused by the cancellation at such short notice of all flights operated by Stobart Air.
“Aer Lingus is now communicating to customers to advise them of their options for refund or rebooking.”
Customers who have booked flights are advised not go to the airport and to check the Aer Lingus website.
The announcement affects flights from Dublin to Kerry, Donegal, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Newquay.
Flights from Belfast City Airport to Manchester, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Leeds Bradford, Exeter and East Midlands have also been cancelled.
A spokesperson for Belfast City Airport said: “We were informed by Aer Lingus this morning that Stobart Air, who operated the Aer Lingus regional franchise, has ceased operations.
“The Aer Lingus Heathrow service is not affected and is still operating.
“We apologise to our passengers for this inconvenience and are working with Aer Lingus to ensure these routes are operating again as soon as possible.”
A spokesperson for Stobart Air said: “It is with great regret and sadness that Stobart Air can confirm that the board is in the process of appointing a liquidator to the business and the airline is to cease operations with immediate effect.
“Stobart Air apologises to all its customers for the inconvenience caused at short notice. All 480 staff at the airline have been informed.
“Last April, Stobart Air announced that a new owner had been identified. However, it has emerged that the funding to support this transaction is no longer in place and the new owner is now unable to conclude the transaction.
“Given the continued impact of the pandemic which has virtually halted air travel… and in the absence of any alternative purchasers or sources of funding, the board of Stobart Air must take the necessary, unavoidable and difficult decision to seek to appoint a liquidator.”
Sunlit Days. An immersive and sensory journey through light and colour that takes us back to our roots and transports us to a more natural, more sustainable and more compassionate future.
We present the first Silestone® Carbon Neutral collection, a commitment to sustainability where we reduce and offset the emissions from the manufacturing process with reforestation projects. This environmental commitment translates into a collaborative program for the preservation of the seabed and our environment.
Sunlit Days is inspired by evocative Mediterranean tones, and a unique lifestyle.
A new breath. A new spirit.
A new Silestone®.
Under the European Green Deal, the European Commission presented in March 2020 a New Circular Economy Action Plan, in which it announced a sustainable product policy legislative initiative to make products fit for a climate neutral, resource efficient and circular economy, reduce waste and ensure that the performance of frontrunners in sustainability progressively becomes the norm. The legislative initiative will entail a revision of the Ecodesign Directive, widening its scope beyond energy-related products, and propose additional legislative measures as appropriate. In this context, the Sustainable Products Initiative public consultation will close on 9 June 2021. In such a flourish legislative period, APPLiA would like to bring relevant views to the table to discuss the future of sustainable products in the EU and present its view of Circular Appliances.
10:00 – 10:05AM
Welcome & Introductory remarks
Paolo Falcioni, APPLiA’s Director General
10:05 – 10:10AM
Federico Magalini, SOFIES, Managing Director
10:10 – 10:35AM
European Commission – DG Environment, Head of Unit
APPLiA, Environment Policy Director
Leendert Jan de Olde
Philips, Director Ecodesign and Sustainability
BEUC, Director Sustainability, Energy, Food, Health and Safety
10:35 – 10:55AM
Keynote Speaker, Q&A
MEP Sirpa Pietikäinen, European Parliament, Member of the European People’s Party (EPP)
10:55 – 11:00AM
The second-generation Lexus NX will be available exclusively as a hybrid, with a more aggressive look and an overhauled infotainment system. Read on for full details.
- 2022 Lexus NX revealed
- Second-generation of hybrid SUV
- Aggressive new look
- Redesigned interior
- Overhauled touchscreen infotainment
- ‘Self-charging’ and plug-in hybrids
- EV version likely in future
A new generation of the Lexus NX has been revealed and will be available exclusively as a hybrid SUV. It goes toe-to-toe with alternatives like the Audi Q5 and BMW X3, and will go on sale before the end of 2022.
2022 Lexus NX design
Though the new Lexus NX isn’t a huge visual departure from the old car, it certainly takes on a more aggressive look.
The ‘spindle grille’ (as Lexus likes to call it) dominates the front, with angular LED headlights flanking it with strike-through daytime running lights.
Short overhangs give the NX a boxy stance, and you can have those alloy wheels up to 20 inches in size.
At the back, a new LED light bar stretches the width of the car with separate slatted units pushed out at either side. Gone is the usual Lexus badge too, with spaced lettering taking its place.
2022 Lexus NX interior and infotainment
One area the Lexus NX has seen a total overhaul is inside. Lexus calls it the ‘Tazuna’ cockpit, which is said to be more oriented towards the driver while giving passengers a better sense of space. This is done with a wrap-around dashboard and centre console, and a central display that’s titled towards the driver’s seat.
There’s a completely new infotainment system as well. Gone are the fiddly trackpads of old Lexus cars, replaced with a huge 14-inch touchscreen.
For better or worse, this now plays host to climate controls as well, plus offers support for Android Auto and Apple CarPlay. If you’d rather not use your phone, the built-in sat nav uses cloud services to provide live traffic data and keep itself up-to-date without requiring any sort of data plan.
2022 Lexus NX hybrid engines
In the UK, the Lexus NX will only be available with hybrid engines. There’s a ‘self-charging’ one in the form of NX350h, which links a 2.5-litre four-cylinder petrol engine to a battery pack. This produces a total of 242hp and can be had with either front- or all-wheel-drive.
Topping the range is a plug-in hybrid NX450h+, which borrows the 2.5-litre four-cylinder engine (the same as the 350gh) and battery pack from the Toyota RAV4 Plug-In. It produces a total of 306hp.
You’ll be able to get up to 43 miles of range in electric-only mode from the N450 too, with the battery taking 5 hours and 30 mins to charge using a home-installed wallbox. You’ll be able to recuperate some energy when driving too.
An all-electric Lexus NX won’t be available when the car first goes on sale, but it’s likely to follow in the next couple of years.
2022 Lexus NX safety equipment
Coming as standard on every Lexus NX is the manufacturer’s Safety System+ suite of tech.
This includes adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking and lane-keeping assistance along with some new goodies including electronic door latches.
These work just the same as any handle inside the car as you’re used to, though can prevent the door from being opened if a risk is detected — such as a cyclist or another car passing by — to prevent you accidentally opening it into traffic.
2022 Lexus NX price and release date
No word yet on how much the Lexus NX will cost, but it’s set to go on sale before the end of 2021.
It should cost about the same as the current car, which starts from just over £36,000.
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