Guide on Seamlessly Migrating from Appium 1.x to Appium 2.x

The latest version of the Appium mobile automation framework, known as Appium 2, brings a host of enhancements, new features, and improved performance. This tutorial aims to help users upgrade from Appium 1.x to Appium 2.x by highlighting the advantages and providing code samples to demonstrate the changes.

One significant difference between Appium 1 and Appium 2 is that the latter no longer offers built-in support for iOS and Android. Instead, users must now install the necessary drivers and optional plugins to access essential features for automated testing.

With Appium 2, the URL for running tests has changed from http://localhost:4723/wd/hub to http://localhost:4723/, eliminating the need for the wd/hub portion in the URL structure. However, users can still use the Appium 1 URL if desired.

Appium 2 exclusively supports the W3C WebDriver protocol, moving away from the Mobile JSON Wire Protocol (MJSONWP) supported by Appium 1.x. Additionally, users must now install drivers separately to ensure the proper functioning of automated tests. Popular drivers like UIAutomator2 Driver for Android and XCUITest Driver for iOS require specific installation commands.

In Appium 2, only certain capabilities can be designated without a vendor prefix, such as browserName and platformName. Other capabilities must be preceded by a string and a colon for proper configuration.

Image comparison commands supported by Appium 1 have been moved to an Appium Plugin in version 2. Users can install an image comparison library for visual testing using the appropriate command in Appium 2.x.

Furthermore, Appium Desktop has been rebranded as Appium Inspector, with its features now available in a separate program. Appium Inspector is compatible with both older Appium 1.x servers and standalone Appium 2.x servers, while compatibility with Appium Desktop 2.x has been deprecated.

Despite these changes, writing tests in Appium 2 remains largely similar to Appium 1, with a few necessary adjustments. Overall, transitioning from Appium 1.x to Appium 2.x introduces new features, requires explicit driver installations, and enhances capability labeling. By following this guidance, testers can streamline their mobile automation workflows effectively.